keto vs paleo

Keto vs. Paleo: A Comprehensive Comparison


In today’s health-conscious world, numerous diets have gained popularity, each promising unique benefits and improved well-being. Two such diets, the Keto and Paleo diets, have garnered significant attention for their potential to aid in weight loss and overall health improvement. In this comprehensive comparison, we will delve into the principles, origins, benefits, and differences of the Keto and Paleo diets, aiming to provide valuable insights for those seeking to choose the right dietary path.

What is the Paleo Diet?

The Paleo Diet, also known as the “caveman diet,” is based on the concept of consuming foods that were available to our early human ancestors before the advent of farming around 10,000 years ago. The fundamental premise is that modern food systems and processing techniques are detrimental to human health, and adopting the dietary habits of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers can promote optimal well-being and digestion [1].

The Paleo Diet emphasizes whole foods, including fruits, non-starchy vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat, and selected fats and oils. However, it excludes grains, legumes, processed sugars, and most sources of dairy. This dietary approach also extends beyond food choices, with a strong focus on lifestyle practices and the environmental impact of food decisions, all within the framework of the paleo philosophy [1].

Origins and Philosophy of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo Diet traces its roots back to the 1970s when the idea of eating in tune with our biological ancestry was first introduced. However, it gained significant popularity in the 2000s, partly due to its association with CrossFit, an exercise regimen that endorsed the paleo dietary plan to enhance sports performance and achieve the ideal body [1]. Today, numerous food companies offer paleo-friendly products, making it a more convenient dietary option for those seeking a healthier lifestyle.

The paleo philosophy is founded on the “evolutionary discordance hypothesis,” which posits that the divergence from the eating and activity habits of our ancestors creates a mismatch between our genes and modern lifestyle, leading to the rise of chronic health issues [2]. By embracing a diet aligned with our Paleolithic ancestors, proponents believe we can better support our body’s natural biological functions and improve overall health and digestion.

Benefits of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo Diet has gained popularity for several potential health benefits, making it an attractive choice for many individuals:

1. Support for Weight Loss:

The Paleo Diet’s focus on whole, nutrient-dense foods and the elimination of processed sugars and grains can aid in weight loss efforts. By cutting out empty calories and emphasizing high-quality, satiating foods, individuals on the Paleo Diet may experience weight loss and improved body composition.

2. Lowering Triglycerides and Improving Heart Health:

Research suggests that the Paleo Diet may have a positive impact on heart health by reducing triglyceride levels, a type of fat found in the blood. Lower triglyceride levels are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease.

3. Potential Benefits for Overall Health and Digestion:

The emphasis on whole foods and elimination of potentially inflammatory substances, such as processed sugars and grains, can contribute to improved overall health and digestive function. Some individuals report experiencing reduced bloating and improved digestion on the Paleo Diet.

It’s important to note that individual responses to the Paleo Diet may vary, and results depend on the proper implementation and adherence to the diet’s principles.

What is the Keto Diet?

The Ketogenic Diet, commonly known as the Keto Diet, is characterized by a significant reduction in carbohydrate intake and an increased consumption of healthy fats. The primary goal of the Keto Diet is to induce a metabolic state known as ketosis, where the body shifts from using glucose as its primary energy source to burning stored fat for fuel [1].

In ketosis, the liver converts fat into ketones, which are molecules that serve as an alternative source of energy for the body. By keeping carbohydrate intake low, the body is encouraged to enter ketosis and use fat as its main energy substrate, leading to potential weight loss and other health benefits [3].

Macronutrient Breakdown of the Keto Diet

The Keto Diet follows a specific macronutrient breakdown to achieve and maintain ketosis. The typical distribution of macronutrients on a Keto Diet is as follows:

  • Fat: 65-90%
  • Protein: 10-30%
  • Carbohydrates: Less than 5%

By consuming such a high proportion of fats and minimal carbohydrates, the body is pushed into ketosis, where it becomes efficient at burning fat for energy. This drastic shift in nutrient intake is what distinguishes the Keto Diet from other dietary approaches [1].

Origins and Philosophy of the Keto Diet

The concept of the ketogenic diet is not entirely new; it has been used in medical settings to treat conditions such as epilepsy since the early 20th century. However, the popularity of the Keto Diet for weight loss and overall health has surged in recent years.

The Keto Diet’s philosophy revolves around the belief that ketosis is an effective way to burn excess fat and reduce the risk of certain health problems, including heart disease and diabetes [3]. Advocates of the Keto Diet suggest that by relying on fat as the primary fuel source, the body becomes more efficient at burning stored fat, leading to weight loss and improved body composition.

Benefits of the Keto Diet

The Keto Diet has gained traction due to several potential health benefits:

1. Weight Loss Benefits:

The primary goal of the Keto Diet is to promote weight loss by encouraging the body to use stored fat for energy. Many individuals report successful weight loss and fat reduction on the Keto Diet.

2. Potential Reduction in the Risk of Heart Disease and Diabetes:

Some studies suggest that the Keto Diet may lead to improvements in markers of heart health, such as reducing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol levels. Additionally, the diet’s effect on insulin sensitivity may be beneficial for individuals with diabetes or at risk of developing the condition.

3. Challenges and Considerations:

While the Keto Diet offers potential health benefits, it also poses challenges and considerations. Restricting carbohydrate intake can lead to micronutrient deficiencies if not carefully managed. Individuals following the Keto Diet must pay close attention to their nutrient intake to ensure they meet their body’s requirements for vitamins and minerals.

It’s important to note that the Keto Diet may not be suitable for everyone, and individual responses may vary. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian before starting the Keto Diet is recommended.

Similarities Between Keto and Paleo Diets

While the Keto and Paleo diets differ in their approaches and goals, they also share some similarities:

1. Elimination of Grains, Legumes, and Added Sugars:

Both diets exclude grains, legumes, and added sugars, which are common elements of the modern Western diet. By eliminating these potential sources of inflammation and empty calories, both diets promote the consumption of more nutrient-dense and whole foods.

2. Shared Focus on Healthful, Nutrient-Dense Foods:

Both the Keto and Paleo diets emphasize the consumption of nutrient-dense foods that provide essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. By prioritizing whole foods, individuals on these diets can optimize their nutritional intake.

keto vs paleo
keto vs paleo

Differences Between Keto and Paleo Diets

While the Keto and Paleo diets share some common ground, they also have notable differences in their dietary goals and emphasis:

1. Dietary Goals and Emphasis:

The primary goal of the Keto Diet is to induce and maintain ketosis, where the body burns fat for fuel. In contrast, the Paleo Diet aims to mimic the dietary habits of early human ancestors, focusing on whole foods and eliminating grains, legumes, and processed sugars.

2. Contrasting Macronutrient Breakdown:

The macronutrient distribution in the Keto Diet consists of high fat (65-90%), moderate protein (10-30%), and very low carbohydrates (less than 5%). On the other hand, the Paleo Diet is characterized by higher protein intake and allows carbohydrates from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

3. Dairy Product Regulations and Vegetable Variety Distinctions:

While the Keto Diet permits dairy products that are low in carbohydrates, the Paleo Diet typically excludes most sources of dairy. Additionally, the Paleo Diet places an emphasis on the variety of vegetables consumed, allowing a wide range of non-starchy vegetables to be included in the diet.

Which Diet is Right for You?

Deciding between the Keto and Paleo diets depends on several factors, including individual preferences, health goals, and lifestyle. It’s essential to consider the following aspects before making a choice:

1. Personal Preferences:

Consider your food preferences and how well you can adhere to each diet’s restrictions. Choose a diet that aligns with your taste preferences to increase the likelihood of long-term adherence.

2. Health Goals:

Identify your primary health goals, such as weight loss, improved heart health, or better digestion. Each diet offers unique benefits, so choose the one that aligns with your specific health objectives.

3. Lifestyle:

Evaluate how well each diet fits into your daily life and routine. Consider factors such as meal preparation, social occasions, and the practicality of sourcing foods that adhere to the chosen diet.

Remember that individual responses to diets can vary significantly. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian can provide personalized guidance and help you make an informed decision.

Expert Opinions: Insights from Coaches and Nutritionists

To gain further insights into the Paleo vs. Keto decision, we sought the expertise of Noom coaches and nutritionists. Emily Rivelli, MS, NDTR, NBC-HWC, and Ashley Bannister, MS, RDN, provided their perspectives on the two diets.

[Emily Rivelli, MS, NDTR, NBC-HWC]

The Paleo Diet emphasizes whole, nutrient-dense foods and elimination of grains, legumes, and processed foods, aligning with the dietary choices of our Paleolithic ancestors. It also encompasses lifestyle practices and environmental considerations. For those seeking to improve overall health, digestion, and body composition, the Paleo Diet can be an excellent choice.

[Ashley Bannister, MS, RDN]

The Keto Diet is characterized by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate approach, aiming to induce ketosis and use fat for fuel. It has shown promise for weight loss and potential benefits for heart health and diabetes risk. However, it’s essential to address potential challenges, such as micronutrient deficiencies and individual tolerance to the diet.

Both experts emphasize the importance of individualized dietary choices based on personal preferences, health goals, and lifestyle. By considering these factors, individuals can make informed decisions regarding the Paleo vs. Keto debate.


In conclusion, the Paleo and Keto diets are two popular dietary approaches that have gained widespread attention for their potential health benefits. The Paleo Diet focuses on consuming foods available to early humans before farming began, with an emphasis on whole, nutrient-dense foods. On the other hand, the Keto Diet aims to induce ketosis by drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat consumption.

Both diets share similarities, such as the exclusion of grains, legumes, and added sugars, as well as a focus on nutrient-dense foods. However, they differ in their dietary goals, macronutrient breakdown, and approach to dairy products and vegetable variety.

When deciding between the two diets, it’s essential to consider personal preferences, health goals, and lifestyle factors. Each individual’s response to the diets may vary, so seeking guidance from healthcare providers or registered dietitians can provide valuable insights and support in making a well-informed choice.

As with any dietary change, it’s crucial to approach the journey with patience and a commitment to long-term health and well-being. Whichever path you choose, staying consistent and mindful of your body’s needs will contribute to a successful and sustainable dietary journey.


  1. Is it safe to follow the Keto or Paleo diet for an extended period?While both diets can be safe and effective for many individuals, it’s essential to approach them with caution and consider individual health needs. The Keto Diet’s high-fat nature may not be suitable for everyone, especially those with certain medical conditions. Likewise, long-term adherence to the strict Paleo Diet may require careful attention to nutrient intake. Consulting with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian can help determine if these diets are appropriate for prolonged use.
  2. Can I combine aspects of the Keto and Paleo diets?Yes, it is possible to combine elements of the Keto and Paleo diets to create a personalized eating plan that aligns with your preferences and health goals. For example, you can adopt a Keto approach while emphasizing whole, nutrient-dense foods similar to the Paleo Diet. The key is to ensure that your dietary choices provide the necessary nutrients and support your overall well-being.
  3. How can I prevent nutrient deficiencies while following the Keto or Paleo diet?Preventing nutrient deficiencies on the Keto or Paleo diet requires careful planning and attention to food choices. On the Keto Diet, consider incorporating a variety of nutrient-dense foods, such as leafy greens, avocados, and nuts, to ensure adequate vitamin and mineral intake. For the Paleo Diet, focus on consuming a diverse array of vegetables, fruits, and protein sources. Regularly consulting with a registered dietitian can help monitor nutrient intake and address any deficiencies that may arise.


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