paleo vs keto

Paleo vs. Keto: What’s the Best Diet for You in 2023?


In the modern world, the rising interest in weight loss and achieving a healthier lifestyle has led many individuals to explore various diet options. Among the popular choices are the Paleo and Keto diets. These eating plans have gained substantial attention due to their potential to aid in weight loss and offer other health benefits. In this comprehensive blog post, we will delve into the intricacies of both diets and help you determine which one might be the best fit for your goals and preferences.

Before we dive into the details, let’s take a look at some statistics on overweight and obesity in the US. As of 2023, over 70% of Americans are classified as overweight or obese, making it a significant public health concern [1]. With obesity contributing to various chronic health issues, including heart disease and diabetes, it is crucial to explore effective and sustainable dietary approaches for weight management and overall well-being.

Paleo Diet Overview

Definition and Origins of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo diet, also known as the Paleolithic or caveman diet, is based on the research of Dr. Loren Cordain, an American scientist. The underlying principle of the Paleo diet revolves around the evolutionary discordance hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the human body is genetically adapted to the diet of our Paleolithic ancestors who lived as hunter-gatherers before the advent of modern agriculture around 10,000 years ago.

According to the Paleo philosophy, our ancestors thrived on a diet primarily composed of whole, unprocessed foods such as meats, vegetables, and fruits. They avoided grains, legumes, and dairy, as these foods were not part of their ancestral diet. The core belief is that by emulating the eating patterns of our early human predecessors, we can support our biological function and promote better health [2][3][4].

Principles of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo diet emphasizes the consumption of whole, nutrient-dense foods while eliminating processed and refined options. The key principles include:

1. Emphasis on Whole Foods

A cornerstone of the Paleo diet is the focus on whole foods that are minimally processed and free from additives. This includes a wide variety of meats, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds.

2. Elimination of Certain Foods

To adhere to the ancestral eating pattern, the Paleo diet eliminates grains, legumes, and processed sugar. These food groups were introduced through agriculture and are believed to have a potential negative impact on health.

3. Focus on Biological Ancestry

The Paleo diet advocates for foods that our bodies are naturally adapted to process. By consuming foods that align with our biological ancestry, proponents of this diet believe that we can optimize digestion and overall well-being.

Foods Allowed and Restricted on the Paleo Diet

The Paleo diet emphasizes certain food groups while excluding others. Foods allowed on the Paleo diet include:

  • Meats: Lean cuts of beef, poultry, pork, and game meats.
  • Fish: Rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines.
  • Eggs: From free-range or pasture-raised chickens.
  • Vegetables: Non-starchy vegetables such as leafy greens, broccoli, cauliflower, and bell peppers.
  • Fruits: Fresh fruits like berries, apples, and citrus fruits.
  • Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and flaxseeds.

Foods restricted or eliminated on the Paleo diet include:

  • Grains: Wheat, oats, rice, and corn.
  • Legumes: Beans, lentils, peanuts, and soy products.
  • Dairy: Milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter.
  • Processed Sugar: Sugary beverages, candies, and desserts.

Popularity and Development of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo diet gained popularity in the 2000s, particularly with the development of CrossFit, an exercise regimen that emphasized this dietary approach for improved sports performance and body composition. Today, numerous food companies offer paleo-friendly products, making it easier for individuals to follow the diet while maintaining a busy lifestyle [2][4].

Keto Diet Overview

Understanding the Keto Diet

The Ketogenic diet, often shortened to Keto, is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that aims to induce a state of ketosis in the body. Ketosis is a metabolic process where the body utilizes fat as the primary source of energy, instead of carbohydrates.

The Keto diet was initially developed in the 1920s as a medical diet to treat epilepsy, primarily in children. Over time, it has evolved into a popular weight loss approach due to its potential to burn fat rapidly and offer other health benefits. In the ketogenic state, the liver produces ketones from fatty acids, which the body uses as an alternative fuel source when carbohydrates are scarce [5].

Macronutrient Breakdown of the Keto Diet

The Keto diet involves a significant shift in macronutrient ratios to achieve and maintain ketosis. The typical macronutrient breakdown for the Keto diet is as follows:

  • Fat: Approximately 65% to 90% of total calories come from healthy fats such as avocados, olive oil, coconut oil, nuts, and seeds.
  • Protein: Around 10% to 30% of total calories are derived from protein sources like meat, fish, eggs, and dairy.
  • Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are restricted to less than 5% of total calories, usually limited to 20 to 50 grams per day.

Similarities and Differences with the Paleo Diet

While the Paleo and Keto diets share some similarities, such as the elimination of grains, legumes, and added sugars, they differ in their primary goals and macronutrient composition. Both diets exclude grains and legumes due to their potential adverse effects on health, as these foods were not part of the ancestral diet of early humans.

The main difference lies in the core objective of each diet. The Paleo diet aims to emulate the eating patterns of our Paleolithic ancestors and emphasizes whole, nutrient-dense foods. In contrast, the Keto diet focuses on reaching and maintaining ketosis, where the body becomes highly efficient at burning fat for energy [2][5].

Key Differences Between Paleo and Keto

The Main Goal of Each Diet

The primary objective of the Paleo diet is to mimic the eating habits of our early human ancestors to promote overall health and well-being. This involves consuming whole, unprocessed foods that are nutrient-dense and align with our biological ancestry.

On the other hand, the Keto diet aims to induce a state of ketosis, where the body burns fat for fuel instead of relying on carbohydrates for energy. Ketosis is associated with rapid weight loss and has been used to manage certain medical conditions like epilepsy and type 2 diabetes [1][5].

Nutrient Composition and Emphasis on Specific Food Groups

The nutrient composition of both diets varies significantly. In the Paleo diet, there is an emphasis on higher protein intake, which supports muscle maintenance and repair. Healthy fats, primarily from sources like avocados and nuts, are also encouraged.

Conversely, the Keto diet prioritizes high-fat consumption to enter and sustain ketosis. Healthy fats play a crucial role in providing the body with energy while restricting carbohydrate intake to a minimum to promote ketosis.

While both diets exclude grains, legumes, and added sugars, the Paleo diet allows for some carbohydrates from whole foods like fruits and vegetables, while the Keto diet restricts carbohydrate intake to a very low level [2][5].

Sustainability and Individual Suitability

Both the Paleo and Keto diets can be challenging to sustain in the long term, and individual suitability plays a significant role in determining the right fit for each person. The Paleo diet may be more manageable for those who enjoy a variety of whole foods and prefer a flexible approach to eating. However, the elimination of certain food groups may be restrictive for some individuals.

On the other hand, the Keto diet requires strict adherence to low carbohydrate intake to achieve ketosis. While some people experience rapid weight loss and improved energy levels on the Keto diet, others may find the restrictions challenging to maintain over an extended period.

It is essential to consider personal preferences, lifestyle factors, and health conditions when choosing between the Paleo and Keto diets. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian can provide valuable insights and ensure that the selected diet aligns with individual health needs and goals [1][2][5].

Origins and Philosophies

The Roots of the Paleo Diet

The concept of the Paleo diet is rooted in the Paleolithic era, a prehistoric period where humans lived as hunter-gatherers. The idea is to adopt the dietary practices of our early ancestors, who subsisted on the natural resources available to them. This includes consuming a variety of animal meats, wild plants, fruits, nuts, and seeds.

The Paleo diet philosophy posits that the shift to modern agricultural practices and processed foods has contributed to various chronic health problems in modern society. By returning to the eating habits of our Paleolithic ancestors, proponents believe that we can better align our diet with our genetic makeup and promote improved health and digestion.

The Inception of the Keto Diet

The Keto diet’s history dates back to the early 20th century when it was developed as a medical therapy for epilepsy treatment. Physicians and researchers discovered that inducing a state of ketosis through dietary modifications reduced the frequency and severity of seizures in epileptic patients.

In recent years, the Keto diet has gained popularity as a weight loss approach due to its ability to promote rapid fat burning. The underlying philosophy centers on using fat as the primary energy source rather than relying on carbohydrates. This metabolic shift is believed to lead to efficient fat utilization and potential weight loss benefits.

Both diets have distinct origins and philosophies that have evolved over time, attracting widespread attention from individuals seeking improved health and weight management.

Benefits of the Paleo Diet

The Paleo diet offers various potential benefits, particularly for individuals looking to manage their weight and improve their cardiovascular health.

Weight Loss Support

The Paleo diet’s emphasis on whole, nutrient-dense foods and the elimination of processed and high-calorie options may contribute to weight loss. By reducing carbohydrate intake and prioritizing protein and healthy fats, the diet can help regulate appetite and promote a sense of fullness, potentially leading to reduced calorie consumption and weight loss.

Cardiovascular Benefits

Research suggests that the Paleo diet may have beneficial effects on certain cardiovascular risk factors. Studies have shown potential reductions in triglyceride levels and LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) when following the Paleo diet. These improvements in lipid profiles are essential for maintaining heart health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases [2].

paleo vs keto
paleo vs keto

Benefits of the Keto Diet

The Keto diet is renowned for its ability to trigger rapid weight loss and offers other potential health advantages.

Rapid Weight Loss

One of the primary benefits of the Keto diet is its ability to induce rapid weight loss, primarily through ketosis. When the body is in a state of ketosis, it efficiently burns fat for energy, leading to accelerated fat loss. This feature has made the Keto diet a popular choice for individuals aiming to shed excess pounds quickly.

Potential Health Advantages

Beyond weight loss, the Keto diet has shown promise in improving certain health markers. Studies have indicated that the diet may enhance blood sugar levels and insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial for individuals with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance. Additionally, the Keto diet may have a positive impact on triglyceride levels and HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), potentially reducing cardiovascular risk [5].

Potential Drawbacks of Both Diets

Nutritional Deficiencies

Both the Paleo and Keto diets can lead to potential nutritional deficiencies if not carefully planned and balanced. Since these diets involve the elimination of certain food groups, there is a risk of inadequate intake of essential nutrients like fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

For example, the Paleo diet excludes grains and legumes, which are excellent sources of fiber and various micronutrients. Similarly, the Keto diet’s severe restriction of carbohydrates can lead to reduced intake of nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, potentially impacting overall nutrition.

To address these concerns, individuals following either diet should focus on consuming a diverse range of nutrient-dense foods and consider incorporating supplements if necessary. Regular monitoring and adjustments to the diet can help prevent nutritional deficiencies.

Sustainability and Adherence Challenges

Both the Paleo and Keto diets may present challenges in terms of long-term sustainability and adherence. The strict restrictions on food choices and the elimination of familiar foods can be difficult for some individuals to maintain over an extended period.

The Paleo diet’s reliance on whole, unprocessed foods may require more time and effort in meal preparation, making it less convenient for individuals with busy lifestyles. Similarly, the Keto diet’s highly restrictive carbohydrate intake can be challenging to sustain for some individuals, leading to potential cravings and feelings of deprivation.

It is essential for individuals considering either diet to evaluate their ability to commit to the dietary guidelines and make adjustments as needed to ensure long-term success.

Making the Choice: Which Diet is Right for You?

When deciding between the Paleo and Keto diets, several factors should be taken into consideration to determine the most suitable eating plan.

Considering Personal Preferences and Lifestyle Factors

The best diet for an individual is one that aligns with their personal preferences, lifestyle, and values. Each person’s food preferences, cultural background, and dietary habits play a significant role in their ability to adhere to a specific eating plan.

For those who enjoy a wide variety of whole, unprocessed foods and appreciate the flexibility of including certain carbohydrates, the Paleo diet may be a favorable choice. On the other hand, individuals seeking rapid weight loss and are comfortable with a strict dietary regimen may find the Keto diet more appealing.

Consultation with a Healthcare Provider

Before embarking on any significant dietary changes, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian. A healthcare professional can evaluate individual health needs, assess any potential health risks associated with a specific diet, and provide personalized guidance.

Medical conditions, existing health concerns, and individual nutritional requirements should be carefully considered when choosing between the Paleo and Keto diets. Moreover, a healthcare provider can help monitor progress and make adjustments to the diet as needed.

Making an informed decision based on individual needs and preferences ensures a sustainable and health-promoting approach to diet and nutrition.

Paleo vs. Keto: Expert Opinions and Recommendations

The debate between the Paleo and Keto diets is ongoing, with differing opinions from nutritionists and experts. While both diets have demonstrated potential benefits, it is crucial to consider individual factors when selecting the best approach for long-term health and well-being.

Insights from nutritionists and experts may vary, but they generally emphasize the importance of finding a balanced and sustainable eating plan. They advocate for incorporating a wide variety of nutrient-dense foods, regardless of whether someone chooses the Paleo or Keto diet.

Nutritionists and experts also stress the significance of personalized dietary approaches that account for individual health needs, preferences, and lifestyle factors. No single diet fits all, and what works best for one person may not be the ideal choice for another.

Combining Diets and Supplementation

For individuals seeking a more flexible approach, it is possible to incorporate elements of both the Paleo and Keto diets. By combining principles from each eating plan, individuals can tailor their diets to suit their unique needs and preferences.

For example, someone may choose to follow a Paleo diet while occasionally incorporating aspects of the Keto diet during certain periods. This could involve intermittent ketosis or implementing a cyclical ketogenic approach, where they alternate between periods of low carbohydrate intake and higher carbohydrate consumption.

Additionally, supplementation can be a valuable tool for individuals following either diet. Since both diets may restrict certain food groups, supplements can help fill potential nutrient gaps and support overall health.

However, before introducing any supplements, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian to determine specific nutritional needs and ensure that the chosen supplements are safe and appropriate.


In the ongoing debate of Paleo vs. Keto, it is essential to recognize that each diet has its unique strengths and potential benefits. The Paleo diet emphasizes the consumption of whole, nutrient-dense foods and may support weight management and cardiovascular health. Meanwhile, the Keto diet leverages the body’s fat-burning capacity through ketosis and offers rapid weight loss and potential improvements in blood sugar levels.

When choosing between the Paleo and Keto diets, individuals should consider their personal preferences, health goals, and lifestyle factors. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian to ensure that the selected diet aligns with individual health needs and is sustainable for long-term success.

Ultimately, the decision between Paleo and Keto comes down to finding a dietary approach that works best for each individual, allowing them to achieve their health and wellness objectives while enjoying a balanced and enjoyable relationship with food.


Are Paleo and Keto diets effective for weight loss?

Both the Paleo and Keto diets have demonstrated potential for weight loss. The Paleo diet’s emphasis on whole, nutrient-dense foods and the elimination of processed options may promote weight management. The Keto diet’s ability to induce ketosis, leading to efficient fat burning, is a key factor in its effectiveness for weight loss.

Can I combine elements of the Paleo and Keto diets?

Yes, it is possible to combine elements of the Paleo and Keto diets to create a personalized eating plan. Some individuals choose to follow a primarily Paleo diet while occasionally incorporating aspects of the Keto diet, such as intermittent ketosis.

Is it necessary to take supplements while following the Paleo or Keto diet?

Depending on individual dietary choices and restrictions, some individuals following the Paleo or Keto diets may benefit from supplementation. Since both diets may exclude certain food groups, supplements can help fill potential nutrient gaps and support overall health. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before introducing any supplements to ensure their safety and appropriateness.


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